Tuesday, April 27, 2010

ಆತ್ಮ ಮತ್ತು ಪರಮಾತ್ಮ ಒಂದೆಯೇ?

Ramanujacharya: The souls are different from, but not independent of, God. They are said to be one only in the sense that they all belong to the same class.

http://www.uramamurthy.com/u_intro1.html#TERM: The Vedas were composed by the seers when they were in a state of inspiration. He who inspires them is God. [With reference to the prophets, Athenagoras says: 'While entranced and deprived of their natural powers of reason by the influence of the Divine Spirit, they uttered that which was wrought in them, the spirit using them as its instrument as a flute-player might blow a flute.' Apol. IX.
Cp. 'Howbeit, when he the spirit of truth is come he shall guide you unto all the truth; for he shall not speak for himself, but whatsoever things he shall hear, these shall he speak.' John XVI. 13. ]

The principal upaniShads are said to be ten. shankara commented on eleven, Isa, kena, kaTha, prasna, muNDaka, mANDUkya, taittirIya, aitareya, chAndogya, bRhad-AraNyaka and svetAsvatara.

He also refers to the kauShItakI, jAbAla, mahAnArAyaNa and paingala upaniShads in his commentary on the brahma sUtra. These together with the maitrAyaNIya or maitrI upaniShad constitute the principal upaniShads. rAmAnuja uses all these upaniShads as also the subAla and the cUlika. He mentions also the garbha, the jAbAla and the mahA upaniShads. vidyAraNya includes nrsimhottara-tApanI upaniShad among the twelve he explained in his sarvopaniShad-arthAnubhUti-prakAsa. The other upaniShads which have come down are more religious than philosophical. They belong more to the purANa and the tantra than to the veda. They glorify vedAnta or yoga or sanyAsa or extol the worship of siva, sakti or viShNu.

1) Isa
2) kena
3) kaTha
4) prasna
5) muNDaka
6) mANDUkya
7) taittirIya
8) aitareya,
9) chAndogya,
10) bRhad-AraNyaka
11) svetAsvatara
12) kauShItakI
13) jAbAla
14) mahAnArAyaNa
15) paingala
16) maitrAyaNIya
17) subAla
18) cUlika
19) garbha
20) maHa
21) nrsimhottara-tApanI

The inspired sages proclaim that the knowledge they communicate is not what they discover for themselves. It is revealed to them without their effort. [ puruSha-prayatnam vinA prakaTIbhUta. shankara. ]

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