Whether a muslim would be happy with such interpretations or not I am not sure. If a fatwa will be passed in my name of not I dont know. But here are how we can see some of the Islamic terminologies. I am only dealing with the primary ones, the key figures. Many of the names will have transformed so much that it may be beyond recognition in its current state.
1. Allah - The Supreme Lord. One without a second. One who cannot be seen. One who is out of this world, out of this creation etc are some of the definitions from Quran, I believe. In Sanskrit is a word called "alOka" which means a) Not having space, b) that which cannot be seen, c) one who does not belong to any of the created worlds, d) the resident of a spiritual world. So "alOka" seems quite close to what Muslims refer to as Allah. Allah is NOT the name of God, it just means God and thus a divine bundle of divine attributes that no "created being" can have.
2. Ali - One of the popular names in the Muslim world. "alin" in sanskrit means someone who is greately advanced in penance; or "aali" which means a) sincere, honest; or "aalikh" which means a) to write, delineate, b) to paint, scribe, c) portray, sketch etc; or "aalip" means annointed! So, these are close to what Ali may stand.
3. Uthman - Utthaman means one who is superior, intelligent, scholar etc
4. Aisha - "aayus" means a) life, duration of life, b) vital power
5. Mohammad - According to Bhavishya puraaNa, Mohammad is "Mahamada", the preceptor of mleccha-dharma, and his followers to the great god, Lord Shiva, situated in the desert. Mada means intoxicated, madness; ardent passion or lustful passion or lasciviousness; love;
6. Abraham - A+Brahma; Abrahmanic and Brahmanic; Brahma means Veda or knowledge,means Spirit, and he is the "beginning" of everything, and the source of the Brahmanical Dharma, i.e. Dharma based on Vedas or "Hinduism"; Abrahmanic religions are NOT based on Vedas, but Abraham initiated the Abrahmanic religion of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
7. Mariam - Mariamma, the diety of this mortal world; Mari literally means "death" or one who kills.
8. Adam - Adi means first, and "aadima" means First, original, primitive; and Adam was the first "human".
9. Jesus - Actually should read as "yesu", which is actually "Ishua"; yEsu is close to "eesha" - the "ruler" and Ishua is close to "Ishvara" - the Lord.
10. Yahova or Jahoa - The God of the old testament, i believe; in Sansksrit "Yahva" means "the great, the magnificient, the powerful"; "an epithet of heaven and earth".
The list will grow.